Tom Knapp has called my attention to an interesting article at the Center for a Stateless Society:
Give Nothing Unto Caesar
It has some interesting historical research, but reaches a faulty conclusion.
Jesus said we are not to resist evil, but "turn the other cheek" (Matthew 5:39). This does not mean that cheek-slappers are a "divine institution." It simply describes a Christian response to evil-doers.
Taxation is the moral equivalent of theft. But Biblical logic does not lead us to conclude that we should not pay the thief. The Bible says pay your taxes. "Turn the other cheek." "Resist not evil."
The desire to tax other people is sinful. The desire to rule over others by force is sinful. The desire for vengeance is sinful. The desire for a civil government is therefore idolatry. The desire to have a civil government is a rejection of God (1 Samuel 8). Therefore the State is evil. The State is a judgment sent by God.
But our relationship with these evil rulers is characterized by respect and honor (1 Peter 2:17; 1 Timothy 6:1; Exodus 22:28; Romans 13:7), not insult and defiance.
Our goal is persuasion, not revolution.
We must beat our swords into plowshares and help archists repent.
But this is not "us" vs. "them."
We all have our swords and we all want to be as gods.
We're in this together.
"Honor all men. Love the brotherhood. Fear God. Honor the king."
1 Peter 2:17
For Further Study:
Rushdoony on the Tribute Money
Jesus and the Tax Revolt - Rushdoony
I'm going to have to take a closer look at these (maybe after the election!):
Romans 13:1-7 - Jesus Radicals Discussion Forum
Obedience to the state; An exegetical exploration of Romans 13. - unlearning the problem